Northern Britain: Area Under Study © James N. Giles, R. D. Giles 2018

The Sites Included in the Study

The sites included in this study are mostly, at this point, forts (as used in a Roman military studies context). They are all located in northern Britain. These forts belong to the various conquest and frontier systems the Romans set up in the area; such as during Agricolan conquest, the Flavian frontier, the Trajanic Frontier, the Hadrianic Frontier, the Antonine Wall, etc. Some of these forts were occupied for almost the whole Roman period in Britain. Others were only occupied for a short time.

The sites were chosen by various criteria. The site had to have been excavated within the last 100 or so years and the results of that excavation(s) had to have been published. There are some exceptions; one or two sites have reports which were not published, but which were available to the author through academic contacts. Others have had early excavations reported in full in later publications. Unfortunately, sites excavated when the discipline of archaeology was young, for example, Chesters, were not included (although the author is still trying!) because artefact analysis has not been done on the artefacts (especially the ceramics) which were found during those excavations.

An attempt was made to include a selection of sites from the various Northern British frontiers. Sites far behind Hadrian's Wall have not been included yet. A few will be added in the near future, as the study expands in scope.

Frontier System Maps

Maps of the frontier systems and occupation periods in Northern Roman Britain are included below. These maps provide geographic context about each frontier system and its associated military sites. In order to learn more about the history of those frontier systems, consult the references given in the sidebar to the right.

Agricolan Marching Camps, Giles 2012:Fig 4
Flavian Frontier, Giles 2012:Fig 5
Stanegate Frontier, Giles 2012:Fig 6
Hadrianic Frontier, Giles 2012:Fig 7
Antonine Wall Frontier, Giles 2012:Fig 8, modified slightly by R.D. Giles 2018
Late Second Century Frontier, Giles 2012:Fig 9
Severan Marching Camps, Giles 2012:Fig 10, modified slightly by R.D. Giles 2018
Third Century Frontier, Giles 2012:Fig 11
Late Fourth Century Frontier, Giles 2012:Fig 12